the deep dive
the science behind webe kälm
Navigating the intricate science behind our nervous system's responses to external and internal stimuli can be complex. That's why we're guiding you through a real-life scenario to shed light on why you experience specific emotions and how you can gain control over your feelings.
from authors Dr. Matthew Lederman & Dr. Alona Pulde: Wellness to Wonderful
1 - baseline state
Our baseline state represents our unaltered condition before external influences come into play. People may exist along a spectrum of sensitivity, with some operating in a serene, composed manner while others exhibit heightened alertness. The nervous system plays a pivotal role, regulating both our internal and external physiological responses to perceived or actual stimuli, functioning at a baseline of either tranquility or anxiety.
When embarking on a walk in the woods, your baseline state significantly impacts your capacity to manage potentially frightening situations. If your baseline state is marked by serenity, you possess greater resilience to contend with any fear-inducing encounters compared to someone whose baseline state is characterized by heightened stress.
the deep dive
What most people don’t realize is that our baseline state is mobilization. This differs from a more common, yet erroneous, thought that our baseline is a state of calm and we mobilize when we feel threatened. The reality is that being in a constant state of mobilization is a survival advantage. This allows us to always be ready to fight or flee from a threat. We are wired to assume danger until safety is established. Otherwise, the seconds it might take to activate fight‐or‐flight could mean the difference between life and death. Imagine seeing the tiger coming toward you. It is not hard to understand the advantage of just running versus having to shift from calm to preparing to run.
To leave our baseline mobilized state, we need to actively turn on a sense of safety. What is our “safety brake?” How do we slow down or tell our baseline mobilized nervous system to calm down and take a break? Through perceived messages of safety experienced in our environ‐ ment. This process is called neuroception, a term coined by Dr. Stephen Porges to emphasize that our nervous system must actually experience the perception. We cannot just think we are safe; instead, we must give our body the felt sense that it is safe (as accurately perceiving whether one is safe or in danger could be a matter of life or death, it is too important to trust our thoughts alone).
Once you understand that our default is to be mobilized in preparation for threat and we have to practice and strengthen the “muscle” to engage calm, then it becomes more clear why using and practicing with the webe kälm can be so helpful. One of the most powerful ways we can actively turn on calm, apply our “safety break,” and send messages of calm to our nervous system (aka neuroception) is through our breathing.
2- Polyvagal Theory: A Science of Safety
Merely contemplating an encounter with a bear as you begin your walk through the woods can trigger an increase in your heart rate. Whether the bear poses a genuine threat or is entirely benign, our internal thoughts have the capacity to activate our nervous system, plunging it into a state of perceived danger. We can’t turn it on at will, nor can we turn it off at will.
the deep dive
Polyvagal theory explains how many different organs in the body are connected by the large vagus nerve (a cranial nerve starting in the brain and affecting many organs, including the heart, lungs, stomach, and intestines) and are affected by how we feel as well as our perception of the world around us. The vagus nerve and the various nuclei within it support two different physiological states in our body: the state of safety and the state of danger or threat. When in the physiological state of threat or high alert, we become hypervigilant and prepare all systems to fight the perceived danger. This cascade of changes happens in the body to increase the chances that we will survive whatever we believe is threatening us. For example, we halt cellular “housekeeping” activities (such as those removing mutated cells that can turn into cancer) to shift resources towards threat neutralization, our heart beats faster (to pump more blood wherever fuel is most needed), we shunt blood towards our extremities (to power our arms to fight and legs to flee) and hindbrain (to defend by reacting immediately, as opposed to thinking and analyzing), our cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines (to prepare for tissue damage in response to the threat), we secrete adrenaline, cortisol, and histamine into our bloodstream (to further support the body to be able to fight or flee), and there are even changes in the muscles in our body such as the middle ear (to better hear certain sounds consistent with threat or harm) and muscles in our larynx (so that our voices can signal threat to others). These are just a few of the many changes our body undergoes to prepare to fight the tiger, bear, or whatever it believes is threatening our life. The threat response lives within us as a subconscious survival mechanism. We can’t turn it on at will, nor can we turn it off at will.
3 - perceived vs. real threats
Imagine this scenario: You've just come across a bear in the woods. Your nervous system can shift into high gear, whether or not the bear truly poses a threat, simply because you perceive it as such. In reality, the bear you've encountered is entirely benign and is merely going about its business in the forest. Nevertheless, the mere thought of a potentially agitated bear can send our heart rate soaring and put our body on high alert.
the deep dive
It is important to note that our body reacts to a “perceived” threat as it does to a “real” threat. In other words, a child being told they have to go to bed or a sibling snatching their toy will react in that moment as though they are under threat. And when under threat they will engage all of the changes above as if they were preparing to fight a tiger. As parents, it is helpful to understand how a threat to needs not being met is experienced physiologically in the body the same way whether it is a threat to needs for play and autonomy (being told to go to sleep or a sibling snatching their toy) or a threat to need for safety (being faced with a tiger in front of them). As adults, most of us learn to differentiate our responses to the different threats and regulate our bodies accordingly.
4- sympathetic nervous system
Now, picture this: You come face to face with an agitated bear. Your physiological and internal reactions can throw your body into disarray, causing your heart rate to skyrocket. This intense response is entirely natural, and in such a situation, there's little you can do to control it.
the deep dive
So how does this system work? We often hear people talk about our sympathetic nervous system (which mediates our survival response), or the fight‐or‐flight response. These are essentially the same thing: our body trying to protect us from danger. We have two survival states to deal with danger. Our more preferred, or more developed, state to fight off danger is to mobilize and fight or flee. This must be done in short bursts because, after a period of time, we will run out of energy to remain mobilized. The other state, which can happen when we see that mobilization is not working or we are facing imminent death, is immobilization. This freeze/faint response is a more primitive state of defense and is our body’s last attempt to save resources or, at the very least, dissociate if we are about to be killed. This immobilization state is frequently experienced by trauma victims who will say that they can’t remember what happened or they did nothing to defend themselves. This was not because they were weak or didn’t care; rather, it was because their nervous system put them into a defensive posture of immobilization in a last‐ditch effort to try to help them survive.
5 - bidirectional
Despite your heart rate soaring and your body feeling completely off-kilter, you can take the first step to regain balance by consciously striving for calmness. Mentally focusing on a state of calm can alleviate the stress your body is experiencing. The subsequent step involves activating your parasympathetic nervous system. This is the very reason why we developed Webe Kalm. While we understand the importance of breathing, concentration, and calming techniques, there are limited tools available to assist children in achieving this.
the deep dive
The beauty of our nervous system is that it works in a bidirectional fashion. In other words, we can feel safe inside and as a result breathe more fully and slowly or we can breathe more fully and slowly and then, as a result of that, start to feel safe inside. Breathing helps us feel safe, and feeling safe helps us connect. We can feel happy and, as a result, smile—or we can smile and actually start to feel happy inside as a result. If you want to experience regulation of the body and nervous system as much as possible, you can “stack your deck” towards safety so that your nervous system can easily and effectively apply your “safety brake,” and effortlessly enter into a pro‐social, anti‐inflammatory state that supports your ability to not only rest, digest, heal, and reproduce, but also experience joy, satisfaction, and a state of wellbeing.
It is in this state of safety that our body shifts our physiology from supporting fighting, fleeing, freezing, or fainting (types of threat responses to perceived danger) to supporting the processes of resting, digesting, healing, and reproducing (all of which can happen only when we are in a state of perceived safety). Organs involved in resting, digestion, healing, and reproduction require a steady stream of “you are safe” messaging (flowing through our vagus nerve as part of our autonomic nervous system) to be able to optimally function. For example, your gastrointestinal system requires a steady stream of “you are safe” messaging for the gut to function normally. In threat mode, safety messages are shut off to optimize our chances of survival. Resources shift from the gut to our extremities, heart, and lungs. These are the areas that will help us fight harder or flee faster. As such, most people with chronic gut‐related issues, for example, will not only benefit from significant dietary intervention but will also often have an excessive level of chronic mobilization compounding the picture. The good news is that using the webe kälm can stimulate a state of calm in the body and provide not only regulation and calming in the moment but also the additional health benefits of living in a physiological state of safety for as much of your time as possible.
Whether your child is having trouble calming down to sleep, do homework, or stop a tantrum, they are in the same mobilized, fight/flight, high alert physiological state. The only thing that can help them is to activate their “safety brake” stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system and regulate their bodies.
6 - enter webe kälm
There are 4 pathways that when using the webe kälm as directed will help stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system to generate a sense of inner peace and calm in the body. They are controlled breathing with extended exhalation, visual focus, auditory regulation, and co-regulation. While each helps calm the nervous system independently, the combination of all 4 proves most effective in achieving quick and lasting results.
To understand how it works visit our page on how it works.
To read the scientific sources for how the parasympathetic nervous system works scroll down. We have compiled a list of sources for your reference.
the deep - deep dive
7 - Slow breathing with extended exhalation:
The first calming pathway creates an immediate soothing effect experienced through slow extended exhalation into the mouthpiece.
How Breath-Control Can Change Your Life: A Systematic Review on Psycho-Physiological Correlates of Slow Breathing
A systematic review showed that “slow breathing techniques enhance autonomic, cerebral and psychological flexibility via links between parasympathetic activity, central nervous system activities related to emotional control, and psychological well-being in healthy subjects…Slow breathing techniques promote autonomic changes increasing Heart Rate Variability and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia paralleled by Central Nervous System (CNS) activity modifications. EEG studies show an increase in alpha and a decrease in theta power. Anatomically, the only available fMRI study highlights increased activity in cortical (e.g., prefrontal, motor, and parietal cortices) and subcortical (e.g., pons, thalamus, sub-parabrachial nucleus, periaqueductal gray, and hypothalamus) structures.” This results in increased comfort, relaxation, pleasantness, vigor and alertness, and reduced symptoms of arousal, anxiety, depression, anger, and confusion.
The relaxation effect of pro-longed expiratory breathing
Another study showed that “During prolonged expiratory breathing, parasympathetic nervous function was significantly activated. Conversely, during rapid breathing, parasympathetic nervous function was significantly suppressed.” In other words, prolonged exhalation is able to activate the part of the autonomic nervous system that is employed with calming the body.
Inhalation/Exhalation Ratio Modulates the Effect of Slow Breathing on Heart Rate Variability and Relaxation
Another study showed that acute increases in relaxation as measured by heart rate variability (a marker of stress level in the boy) and measured by self-reported stress occurred with breathing where their exhale was greater than their inhale (I/E ratio 0.42) as well as breathing at 6 breaths a minute. Participants in the study experienced increased relaxation, stress reduction, mindfulness and positive energy when breathing with extended exhalation. “Our results show that i/e ratio is an important modulator for the autonomic and subjective effects of instructed ventilatory patterns.”
Device-guided breathing in the home setting: Technology, performance and clinical outcomes
“Prolonged exhalation also appears to minimize the chance of inspiratory muscle fatigue, because its perfusion occurs mainly (or solely) during exhalation. Inspiratory muscle fatigue leads to sympathetic activation that increases ventilation” Exhalation appears to be the part of the breath cycle where breathing muscles are restored so that extending this phase of breathing decreases the time spent during the part of the breath cycle that mobilizes the sympathetic nervous system.
Slow breathing is also helpful in stimulating the calming parts of our nervous system so when we extend our exhalation we naturally slow our overall breathing rate. In fact, slow deep breathing has been found to elicit beneficial effects in a variety of clinical conditions including: stress, anxiety, insomnia, panic disorder, recurrent abdominal pain, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic hyperventilation, hypertension, cardiac events after myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. Interestingly many of these diseases listed above are associated with chronic elevation of sympathetic activation and autonomic imbalance, which is exactly what slow breathing appears to address.
Below is pulled from an article describing how breathing modification at rest, is an intervention that reduces sympathetic activity both acutely and chronically:
“The need to maintain oxygen supply requires that under isocapnic conditions slow breathing requires greater lung inflation. Moderate lung inflation was demonstrated to almost completely inhibit muscle sympathetic neural activity (MSNA) from late inspiration to mid-expiration in normal subjects and in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. The effect stems from activation of low-threshold pulmonary stretch receptors located in the lung and chest wall that initiate vagal afferents. This process leads to vasodilation in a number of vascular territories such as intact limb, skin, muscle, kidney and splanchnic vascular bed. For example, 35% decrease in MSNA was observed in CHF patients during a DGB [device-guided breathing] session with the present device. The relevance of this mechanism for treating high BP [blood pressure] with slow breathing is that the need to maintain tissue perfusion leads to BP reduction, in response to the decrease in the peripheral resistance caused by vasodilation of arteriolar vessels. More specifically, the arteriolar lumen diameter increases in response to the relaxation of smooth muscles that are embedded in the arteriolar wall, with tone controlled by the sympathetic activity.”
Slow breathing for reducing stress: The effect of extending exhale
One study showed that “slow breathing significantly reduces psychological stress” which is going to help feel more calm and regulated.
Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effect of Yogic Slow Breathing in the Yoga Beginner: What Is the Best Approach?
Another study showed, “slow breathing has been shown to reduce both physiological and psychological stress measures”
Hemodynamic effects of slow breathing: Does the pattern matter beyond the rate?
Another study showed, “The time domain parameters of heart rate variability (SDRR, PNN50, RMSSD) increased significantly with patterned breathing. So did the spontaneous baroreflex gain of increasing sequences (up-BRS, from 12 ± 7 to 17 ± 10 ms/mmHg, p < 0.05), and the cross-spectral low frequency gain, the LF alpha (from 11 ± 7 to 15 ± 7 ms/mmHg, p < 0.05).”
In other words, markers of calming in the body were demonstrated when slow breathing was supported
Single Slow-Paced Breathing Session at Six Cycles per Minute: Investigation of Dose-Response Relationship on Cardiac Vagal Activity
Another study showed increases in vagal tone among participants performing slow breathing. This makes sense as the vagus nerve lies at the foundation of our autonomic nervous system responsible for regulation and feeling calm and grounded.
8 - Focused attention mindfulness:
Next, there is research showing that quieting our minds activates our parasympathetic nervous system, can be extremely regulating in the moment as well as enhance our strategies to effectively cope and handle a challenge or obstacle. Through practiced regulation of our emotions we can approach an experience with calm and resource. With the webe kälm we employ visual focus on keeping the ball aloft to generate mindfulness in moments of upset as well as moments of practice so that we are prepared for moments of upset.
The Impact of Focused Attention on Emotional Experience: A Functional MRI Investigation
Research has showed that focused attention was successful in decreasing emotional reactivity in response to negative images causing emotional charge in their subjects. At the neural level, there was “increased activity in regions typically implicated in top-down executive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lateral parietal cortex) and decreased activity in regions linked to affective processing (amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). Dissociable brain activity linked to focused attention also was identified in visual cortices, including between the parahippocampal and fusiform gyri.” They concluded that, “These findings complement the evidence from prior FA [focused attention] studies with recollected emotional memories as internal stimuli and further demonstrate the effectiveness of self-guided FA in mitigating negative emotional experiences associated with processing of external unpleasant stimuli.”
Focused attention meditation changes the boundary and configuration of functional networks in the brain
In addition, “Research has shown that focused attention meditation not only improves our cognitive and motivational functioning (e.g., attention, mental health), it influences the way our brain networks [e.g., default mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN), and sensory-motor network (SMN)] function and operate.” This supports using focused attention to enhance the cooperation between the various networks of the brain to function and work together most optimally.
Inward-attention meditation increases parasympathetic activity: a study based on heart rate variability
Another study concluded, “...inward-attention meditation practice appears to push the sympathovagal balance to parasympathetic predominance…” In other words, focused attention appears to help push the balance of our autonomic system to lean towards the side that activates calm in our bodies).
9 - White Noise:
Thirdly, with each exhalation, “white noise” is created in the chamber of the webe kälm further enhancing the calming experience.
Use of white noise-emitting devices in infants and small children as assessed by their parents
White noise is a type of monotonous sound “whose spectrum is balanced across the majority of audible frequency range, without rapid changes in volume.” White noise can be reminiscent of natural sounds that trigger neural connections created during fetal development. Researchers believe that the child experiences such a monotonous acoustic phenomenon already in the mother’s womb (her heartbeat, blood flow in large blood vessels) and are the sounds of fetal life where similar sounds may have a soothing and calming effect.
White noise and sleep induction.
Cognitive performance, creativity and stress levels of neurotypical young adults under different white noise levels
It can be helpful to use sleep induction as another marker of calm as it is with calm that the body is most easily able to drift off to sleep. Highly mobilized nervous systems have a much harder time inducing sleep.
Another study linked white noise with a host of benefits: “Our findings showed that the white noise level at 45 dB resulted in better cognitive performance in terms of sustained attention, accuracy, and speed of performance as well as enhanced creativity and lower stress levels.”
10 - Co-Regulation:
In addition to the 3 internal pathways activated there is a 4th pathway, co-regulation, that the webe kälm employs to support nervous system regulation and calming. All of us naturally feel secure and flourish when we are surrounded by others in a nurturing environment. Co-regulation, the act of working together as a community to find calmness, is the 4th pathway. When introducing webe kälm, it is crucial for adults to engage in co-regulation with the child, rather than resorting to yelling and commanding them to "Calm Down!" In times of distress, it is through togetherness that we can tap into this pathway and discover tranquility. By uplifting and supporting one another with the powerful tool of webe kälm during challenging moments, we can harmonize all four pathways and embark on a journey of shared calmness.
The co-regulation of emotions between mothers and their children with autism.
Data supports the tremendous value of co-regulation. For example, results of one study indicated “a positive effect of an intervention targeting joint engagement on emotion co-regulation outcomes…The link between joint attention and emotion self-regulation in the typical literature suggests that children who rarely engage in joint attention, such as children with autism, may be at risk for having difficulty in the area of emotion self- regulation…intervention outcomes provide evidence for the effectiveness of an early mother-driven social-communication intervention in decreasing negativity and supporting emotion regulation capabilities”
Individual differences in infant attention skills, joint attention, and emotion regulation behavior
In other words, this study exploring kids with autism showed how essential and helpful co-regulation of the parent with the child can be in supporting calm in the child.
Another study showed, “The results of this study are consistent with previous research finding associations between collaborative joint attention and children’s emotion regulation behaviour…socially contingent interaction with parents may provide toddlers with important self- regulatory skills such as directing attention away from sources of distress…2-year-old children who spent more time in joint focus with their mothers during a free-play session were indeed better able to use self-directed regulatory strategies (e.g., self- distraction) when confronted with a distressing situation, and spent less time seeking parental assistance to regulate distress…Given the connections between collaborative joint attention and emotion regulation behaviour, the current findings provide additional support for the suggestion that parents who establish and maintain shared attention on objects during interaction may promote the development of children’s ability to use their own attention to modulate distress.” This supports the tremendous value of parents working together with their children to help regulate and calm the nervous system of the child. The webe kälm is a valuable tool to support this essential collaboration between the parent and child when seeking to support child development of self-regulation skills.
Neurobiology of Parental Regulation of the Infant and Its Disruption by Trauma Within Attachment.
Another study looking at the neurobiology of co-regulation showed, “Sensory stimuli received during parental care are important for the infant to maintain homeostasis across myriad physiological and emotional systems until self-regulation is achieved.” This means that there is a need for the child to use the parent to help the child regulate a host of biological functions in the child’s body. This article went on to discuss how in animal studies, “children separated from the mother exhibited dysregulation of myriad physiological functions and behaviors…research suggests that young children are using all of their sensory systems to use parental information to maintain homeostasis…the smell of the mother’s odor enters the pup’s olfactory system and travels to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to suppress activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal…While a present and calm parent typically suppress their offspring’s fear, an agitated or fearful parent can enhance their offspring’s fear via social transmission…Rodent and human research have shown that a parent expressing fear to a specific cue will transmit that specific fear to their child, a process associated with heightened amygdala activation…Across species, the infant uses sensory stimuli from parental care to regulate brain functions and emotional homeostasis…This review of animal models of human regulation has highlighted that maternal presence regulates the brain on myriad levels, including gene expression, receptors, neurotransmitters, brain regions of interest, circuits, and networks across the brain including data from our lab.” This means that parental co-regulation is not only calming to the autonomic nervous system but essential for all organs in the child’s body to function optimally. What’s more, the physiological state of the parent (ex: angry vs. calm) will affect the child’s ability to regulate and calm. Often parents become reactive and angry when they are under-resourced and unclear what to do to help the child. By using the webe kälm both the parent and child have a clear strategy and tangible tool they can now use with ease and clarity to help calm the child.
Co-regulation is even more important when the child is in a high alert state or in threat physiology, “This regulatory effect occurs during parent-infant interactions but is more salient during a threat.” So when your child is angry, upset, triggered, or otherwise unbalanced it is essential that the parent supports the child through a process that engages co-regulation as well
webe in this together
Ultimately, when supporting your child with the webe kälm it is not only important to teach them how to properly use it but to also be there with them supporting the cultivation of calm as a calm, regulated team. There is clearly data that supports the use of the webe kälm but more important than trusting the data is to trust your own experience. Finally, parents have a tool they can easily rely upon that will support a child’s natural ability and desire to find calm and regulate their nervous system. Give it a try and prepare yourself for some amazing results!
Remember, WeBe in this together!
11 - Proactive vs. Reactive use
Using webe kälm effectively involves two approaches: reactive use and proactive use. Reactive use is like taking medicine for a headache when you've already got one—it helps in the moment but doesn't prevent future issues. Proactive use is about incorporating webe kälm into your routine to prevent or reduce future stressors, like maintaining a healthy lifestyle to avoid headaches. Use webe kälm regularly throughout the day (when you wake up, before meals, and before bedtime) to build a calm "savings account." This way, your body becomes adept at returning to a state of calm, much like driving to a familiar place with ease. Consistent proactive use turns your body into a finely tuned calming machine, ensuring you have a reserve of calmness whenever you need it.
Proactive use is when you use something when there isn’t a problem in an effort to prevent or decrease the magnitude and frequency of the problem in the future. This is helping to prevent a “mess” from occuring in the first place or helping to make less of a “mess” the next time there is an issue.
This would be like eating a healthy diet along with daily stretching of your neck muscles, regular yoga, and back and head massages to help prevent headaches from ocuring in the first place. Similarly, when trying to calm the nervous system it is helpful to give your nervous system a calming “massage” on the inside through the webe kalm 3 pathways (slow exhalation, focused attention, and auditory regulation). You could also think of using the webe kalm as giving the body messages of calm regularly throughout the day. Think of calming messages like nutrients in your food. You want to fill your body with calming nutrients by using the webe kalm 3-5 times per day just like giving your body food nutrients 3-5 times per day during meals and snacks. You don’t just wait until you are ravenous and starving rather you eat proactively 3 times per day.
When using the webe kalm at regular intervals throughout the day, you (1) retune the nervous system from intensity and mobilization to more calm and a sense of safety or comfort and (2) you build muscle memory of what calm is so that we can more easily get back to it when upset. You create a familiar sense of calm to which your body knows how to return. This is similar to being able to drive with ease when going to the same location you have driven to twice a day for the last month versus driving to a new location you have never been to before. Have you ever driven to a new location and it felt like it took a long time but then on your way home (a familiar location) it seemed like the same distance was much quicker? The more you use the webe kalm proactively the easier it will be to get to your destination of calm.
Webe kalm best use directions:
- Proactive use of the webe kalm will turn your body into a finely tuned calming machine. Our “prescription” is to use the webe kalm right when you wake up, before breakfast, before lunch, before dinner, and before going to sleep. If you use the webe kalm 5 times a day regardless of whether you “need” it, you will be putting money into your calm “savings account” so that you have a lot of calm ready to withdraw whenever you need it.
Reactive use is when you react to the dysregulation happening in the moment. It is when you focus on cleaning up the “mess” that is happening at the moment.
Using the webe kalm when you are reactive and upset functions similarly to taking tylenol when you have a headache. It addresses the immediate pain in the moment.
However, using the webe kalm only when reactive doesn’t do as much to prevent or decrease the frequency or magnitude of future “headaches”. SO, like tylenol, we want to have the webe kalm available to us but not limit its use to only when we are “symptomatic.”. Instead, we also want to have it available for preventionwhich brings us to the second type of utilization, proactive use.
Directions for Proactive use
Proactive use of the webe kalm will turn your body into a finely tuned calming machine. Our “prescription” is to use the webe kalm right when you wake up, before breakfast, before lunch, before dinner, and before going to sleep. If you use the webe kalm 5 times a day regardless of whether you “need” it, you will be putting money into your calm “savings account” so that you have a lot of calm ready to withdraw whenever you need it.
- When you wake up
- Before breakfast, lunch, and dinner
- Before bed
- As needed